Monday, 6 July 2015



·         A product or services that an organization’s customers place a greater value on than similar                  offerings from a competitor.

·         Unfortunately, CA is temporary because competitors keep duplicates the strategy.

·         Then, the company should start the new competitive advantage.


·         Michael porter’s Five Forces Model is useful tool to aid organization in challenging decision               whether to join a new industry or industry segment.


·         High- when buyers have many choices of whom to buy.

·         Low- when their choices are few.

·         To reduce buyer power (and create competitive advantage), an organization must make it more            attractive to buy from the company not from the competitors.

·         Best practices of IT-based- loyalty program in travel industry (e.g. rewards on free airline                   tickets or hotel stays)


·         High- when buyers have few choices of whom to buy from.

·         Low- when their choices are many. (Best practices of IT to create competitive advantage.)

·         Supplier power is the converse of buyer power.

          Suppliers > organization > customers


·         High- when there are many alternatives to a product or services.

·         Low- when there are few alternatives from which to choose.

·         Ideally, an organization would like to be on a market in which there are few substitute of their             product or services.



·         High- when it is easy for new competitors to enter a market.

·         Low- when there are significant entry barriers to entering a market.

·         Entry barriers is a product or service feature that customers have come to expect from                         organizations and must be offered by entering organization to compete.


·         High- when competition is fierce in a market.

·         Low- when competition is more complacent.


·         Cost leadership

-          Becoming a low-cost producer in the industry allows the company to lower prices to                            customers.

-          Competitors with higher cost cannot afford to compete with the low cost leader on price.

·         Differentiation

-          Create competitive advantage by distinguishing their products on one or more features                        important to their customers.

-          Unique features or benefits may justify price differences and/or stimulate demand.


Business Driven Technology

Why we need to study Information Technology (IT)?

IT is everywhere in business. Understanding IT provides great insight to anyone learning about business.

Information Technology’s Impact on Business Operations

-       Organization typically operate by functional areas or functional silos
-       Functional areas are interdepends

Information Technology Basics

Information technology (IT) – 
A field concerned with the use of technology in managing and processing information. IT is an important enabler of business success and innovation-       

Management information system (MIS) –
A general name for the business function and academic discipline covering the application of people, technologies and procedures to solve business problems. 
MIS is a business function, similar to Accounting, Finance, Operations and Human Resources.

-          When beginning to learn about information technology it is important to understand

·         Data, information and business intelligence

·         IT resources

·         IT cultures

-          Data, information and business intelligence

·         Data is a raw facts that describe the characteristics of an event

·         Information is a data converted into a meaningful and useful context.

·         Business intelligence is an applications and technologies that are used to support decision making efforts.

-          IT Resources

·         People use

·         Information technology to work with

·         Information

-          IT Cultures

·         Organizational information cultures include;

Information-Functional Culture
 – Employees use information as a means of exercising influence or power over others. For example, a manager in sales refuses to share information with marketing. This causes marketing to need the sales manager’s input each time a new sales manager’s input each time a new sales strategy is developed.

Information-Inquiring Culture
 – Employees across departments search for information to better understand the future and align themselves with current trends and new directions.

Information-Discovery Culture 
– Employees across departments are open to new insight about crisis and radical changes and seek ways to create competitive advantages.

Information-Sharing Culture
– Employees across departments trust each other to use information (especially about problems and failures) to improve performance.